- More likely to be adopted (8, 9, 10, 11, 14)
- Half as likely to re-enter foster care (8, 11, 14)
- Substantially less likely to spend time in long-term foster care (14)
- More likely to have a plan for permanency, especially children of color (17)
- More services are ordered for the children (1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 14)
... and are more likely to have a consistent, responsible adult presence. (1, 2, 12)
- Volunteers spend significantly more time with the child than a paid guardian ad litem. (2)
- “It is quite remarkable that children without CASA involvement are spending an average of
over eight months longer in care, compared to children having CASA involvement.” (15)
... and are less likely to be bounced home to home. (13, 15, 16)
- CASA volunteers improve representation of children. (18)
- Reduce the time needed by lawyers (12)
- More likely than paid lawyers to file written reports (3, 4, 5)
- For each of 9 duties, judges rated CASA/GAL volunteers more highly than attorneys (12)
- Highly effective in having their recommendations adopted by the court (1)
- More likely to pass all courses
- Less likely to have poor conduct in school
- Less likely to be expelled
... and score better on nine protective factors (13)
- Neighborhood resources, interested adults, sense of acceptance, controls against deviant behavior,
models of conventional behavior, positive attitude towards the future, valuing achievement, ability to
work with others and ability to work out conflicts.
1. Caliber Associates, National CASA Association Evaluation Project, Caliber Associates; Fairfax, Virginia, 2004.
2. Donald D. Duquette and Sarah H. Ramsey, “Using Lay Volunteers to Represent Children in Child Protection Court Proceedings” (Appendix C). Child Abuse and Neglect 10(3): p. 293-308, 1986.
3. Sherrie S. Aitken, Larry Condelli, and Tom Kelly, Final Report of the Validation and Effectiveness Study of Legal Representation Through Guardian Ad Litem. Report submitted to the Administration on Children Youth and Families, Department of Health and Human Services by CSR, Inc.: Washington, DC, 1993.
4. Karen C. Snyder, John D. Downing, and Jill A. Jacobson, A Report to the Ohio Children’s Foundation on the Effectiveness of the CASA Program of Franklin County. The Strategy Team: Columbus, OH, 1996.
5. Victoria Weisz and Nghi Thai, “The Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Program: Bringing information to Child Abuse and Neglect Cases,” Child Maltreatment 8(X), 2003.
6. Larry Condelli, National Evaluation of the Impact of Guardian Ad Litem in Child Abuse and Neglect Judicial Proceedings. Report submitted to the National Center of Child Abuse and Neglect for the Administration of Children, Youth and Families by CSR, Inc.: Washington, DC, 1988.
7. Litzelfelner, “The Effectiveness of CASAs in Achieving Positive Outcomes for Children,” Child Welfare 79(2): p. 179-193, 2000.
8. John Poertner and Allan Press, “Who Best Represents the Interests of the Child in Court?” Child Welfare 69(6): p. 537-549,